Molecular Plant Pathology (2007) 8, 343-348

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Javaria Qazi, Muhammad Ilyas, Shahid Mansoor and Rob W. Briddon (2007)
Legume yellow mosaic viruses: genetically isolated begomoviruses
Molecular Plant Pathology 8 (4), 343-348
Abstract: The yellow mosaic diseases of a number of legumes across Southern Asia are caused by four species of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae): Mungbean yellow mosaic virus, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus, Dolichos yellow mosaic virus and Horsegram yellow mosaic virus. They cause losses to a number of important pulse crops, a major source of dietary protein in the region. The viruses have host ranges limited to plants of the family Fabaceae and efforts to limit losses are hampered by limited availability of conventional resistance sources and/or the lack of durability of the resistance that has been identified. There is ample evidence for genetic interaction between these begomoviruses within the legumes, in the form of both classical recombination and component exchange, but little evidence for interaction with viruses that infect other plants. This is indicative of genetic isolation, the viruses in legumes evolving independently of the begomoviruses in plant species of other families. This has implications for the development of engineered resistance in legumes, which holds the promise of durability but has yet to be transferred to the field.
Taxonomy: The viruses causing yellow mosaic diseases of legumes across southern Asia, four of which have been identified so far, are bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae): Mungbean yellow mosaic virus, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus, Horsegram yellow mosaic virus and Dolichos yellow mosaic virus.
Physical properties: The legume yellow mosaic viruses (LYMVs), like all members of the Geminiviridae, have geminate (twinned) particles, 18-20 nm in diameter, 30 nm long, apparently consisting of two incomplete T = 1 icosahedra joined together in a structure with 22 pentameric capsomers and 110 identical protein subunits.
Disease symptoms: Symptoms caused by LYMVs are largely dependent on host species and susceptibility. Initially symptoms appear as small yellow specks along the veins and then spread over the leaf. In severe infections the entire leaf may become chlorotic. In blackgram the chlorotic areas sometimes turn necrotic. Infections of French bean usually do not produce a mosaic but instead induce a downward leaf curling.
Disease control: Control is based mainly on preventing the establishment of the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, in the crop by application of insecticides. Changes in agricultural practices, such as moving the cropping period out of periods of high vector incidence (the wet period in late summer) to times of low vector incidence (dry season in early summer) have met with some, albeit short-term, benefits. The use of natural, host plant resistance is efficacious, although the available sources of resistance in most legume crops are limited. In mungbean the resistance is attributed to two recessive genes which are used effectively to control the disease.
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Database assignments for author(s): Rob W. Briddon, Shahid Mansoor

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Mungbean yellow mosaic virus Thailand
Mungbean yellow mosaic virus Cowpea and relatives (Vigna) India
Horsegram yellow mosaic virus Macrotyloma (genus)
Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus Cowpea and relatives (Vigna) India
Dolichos yellow mosaic virus Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)