Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (2019) 32, 227-239
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Secretome analysis and in planta expression of salivary proteins identify candidate effectors from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 32 (2), 227-239
Abstract: The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a phloem sap-feeding insect. During feeding on rice plants, BPH secretes salivary proteins with potential effector functions, which may play a critical role in the plant–insect interactions. However, a limited number of BPH effector proteins have been identified to date. Here, we sequenced the salivary gland transcriptomes of five BPH populations and subsequently established a N. lugens secretome consisting of 1,140 protein-encoding genes. Secretome analysis revealed the presence of both conserved and rapidly evolving salivary proteins. A screen for potential effectors that elicit responses in the plant was performed via the transient expression analysis of 64 BPH salivary proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and rice protoplasts. The salivary proteins Nl12, Nl16, Nl28, and Nl43 induced cell death, whereas Nl40 induced chlorosis and Nl32 induced a dwarf phenotype in N. benthamiana, indicating effector properties of these proteins. Ectopic expression of the six salivary proteins in N. benthamiana upregulated expression of defense-related genes and callose deposition. Tissue expression analysis showed a higher expression level of the six candidate effectors in salivary glands than in other tissues. Subcellular localization and analysis of the domain required for cell death showed a diverse structure of the six effectors. Nl28, Nl40, and Nl43 are N. lugens specific; in contrast, Nl12, Nl16, and Nl32 are conserved among insects. The Nl40 family has numerous isoforms produced by alternative splicing, exemplifying rapid evolution and expansion of effector proteins in the BPH. Our results suggest a potential large effector repertoire in BPH and a higher level of effector conservation exist in BPH compared with that in plant pathogens.
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Database assignments for author(s): Guangcun He
Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
molecular biology - genes
Pest and/or beneficial records:
|Nilaparvata lugens||Rice (Oryza)|