Journal of Nematology (2006) 38, p. 277 (Lacey)

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L.A. Lacey (2006)
Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of codling moth in apples and pears: Overcoming obstacles of environment and attitude
Journal of Nematology 38 (2), 277-277
Abstracts of Society of Nematologists 45th Annual Meeting, Lihue, Hawaii, 18-21 June 2006
Abstract: Codling moth (CM), a serious pest of apple and pear in most countries where these fruits are grown. Control of overwintering CM larvae would reduce or eliminate damage to fruit early in the following growing season. Entomopathogenic nematodes have shown promise as biological control agents of cocooned CM larvae in the Pacific Northwest, but several factors warrant investigation to provide growers with practical control options. Field trials with Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae were conducted in apple and pear orchards to determine the effects of seasonal temperatures, post-application irrigation and method of application on larval mortality. Trials in late summer, fall and early spring, using application rates 106 infective juveniles (IJ)/tree plus supplemental wetting to aid survival of IJ revealed that the best control (94-95% mortality in sentinel CM larvae) when mean temperatures above 20°C. When temperatures dropped to a mean of 12-13°C control by S. feltiae was still effective (90% mortality), but S. carpocapsae was significantly less effective (58% mortality). Application of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae (2.0 x 106 IJ/tree) with an airblast sprayer, provided results that were comparable to that of treatment of individual trees with a hand-held lance applicator. Tests in the fall with S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae applied with an airblast sprayer (1 - 2.5 x 109 IJ/ha) in 4-year-old trellised apple and established Bartlett pear orchards provided effective control when orchards were kept wet for several hours. Compared with bare ground, wood chip mulch enhances control by providing cocooning sites for CM larvae and a substrate that is easy to treat, maintains moisture, and enhances nematode activity. Applications of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae at a rate of 2.5 x 109 IJ/ha to bare and wood chip-mulched plots followed by 1 h of irrigation resulted in 21 and 65% reduction in sentinel larvae in bare plots compared to 93 and 85% in mulched plots, respectively.
Database assignments for author(s): Lawrence A. Lacey

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
application technology
environment/habitat manipulation


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (NW)
Cydia pomonella Pear (Pyrus) U.S.A. (NW)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (NW)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Pear (Pyrus) U.S.A. (NW)