Journal of Chemical Ecology (2010) 36, 70-79

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Mary A. Jamieson and M. Deane Bowers (2010)
Iridoid glycoside variation in the invasive plant dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (Plantaginaceae), and sequestration by the biological control agent, Calophasia lunula
Journal of Chemical Ecology 36 (1), 70-79
Abstract: Invasive plant species can have significant ecological and economic impacts. Although numerous hypotheses highlight the importance of the chemical defenses of invasive plant species, the chemical ecology of many invasive plants has not yet been investigated. In this study, we provide the first quantitative investigation of variation in iridoid glycoside concentrations of the invasive plant Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica). We examined variation in chemical defenses at three levels: (1) variation within and among populations; (2) variation due to phenology and/or seasonal differences; and (3) variation among plant parts (leaves, flowers, and stems). Further, we examined two biological control agents introduced to control L. dalmatica for the ability to sequester iridoid glycosides from this invasive plant. Results indicate that L. dalmatica plants can contain high concentrations of iridoid glycosides (up to 17.4% dry weight of leaves; mean = 6.28 ± 0.5 SE). We found significant variation in iridoid glycoside concentrations both within and among plant populations, over the course of the growing season, and among plant parts. We also found that one biological control agent, Calophasia lunula (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was capable of sequestering antirrhinoside, an iridoid glycoside found in L. dalmatica, at levels ranging from 2.7 to 7.5% dry weight. A second biological control agent, Mecinus janthinus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a stem-mining weevil, did not sequester iridoid glycosides. The demonstrated variation in L. dalmatica chemical defenses may have implications for understanding variation in the degree of invasiveness of different populations as well as variation in the efficacy of biological control efforts.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website


Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
molecular biology - genes
resistance/tolerance/defence of host


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Linaria dalmatica (weed)
Mecinus janthiniformis (weed bioagent) Linaria dalmatica (weed)
Calophasia lunula (weed bioagent) Linaria dalmatica (weed)