Journal of Applied Entomology - Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie (1997) 121, 473-485

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Joop C. van Lenteren, Y.C. Drost, H.J.W. van Roermund and C.J.A.M. Posthuma-Doodeman (1997)
Aphelinid parasitoids as sustainable biological control agents in greenhouses
Journal of Applied Entomology - Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 121 (9-10), 473-485
Abstract: Aphelinid parasitoids have been used for control of pests in greenhouses since the 1920s, but large scale application started only some 25 years ago. Today, several aphelinid parasitoids are commercially used for the biological control of scale, aphid and whitefly pests in greenhouses. A success story is the biological control of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, with the aphelinid Encarsia formosa. Encarsia is applied on 5000 ha of vegetable crops worldwide. Weekly, more than 20 million individuals of E. forrnosa are mass reared and shipped to growers in 20 countries. About 10 years ago, another whitefly species, Bemisia sp., developed to pest status and a search for control of scales and aphids in greenhouses is summarized, as well as the status of commercial biological control with aphelinid parasitoids. Further, the questions whether effective natural enemies can be identified before introduction and if autoparasitoids should be imported and released are addressed. Finally, the usefulness of parasitoid biotype studies to recognize suitable candidates for biological is considered.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Joop C. van Lenteren

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
evaluation - screening - selection

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Trialeurodes vaporariorum
Encarsia formosa (parasitoid) Trialeurodes vaporariorum