Israeli acute paralysis virus
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Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV)
The virus infects adult honey bees. It belongs to the genus Aparavirus (family Dicistroviridae) and is closely related to the Kashmir bee virus. It was first described from Israel in 2004 and has since been reported from Asia, Australia, Europe and the Americas.
The virus disease lacks obvious symptoms and seems to appear usually in covert infections, like most Dicistroviruses. However, workers experimentally infected with IAPV display shivering wings, cramping, and disorientation followed by paralysis and death within a few days (Amiri et al., 2019). The virus spreads within a colony through contact and by Varroa mites.