Florida Entomologist (2002) 85, 254-260

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T. Olckers, J.C. Medal and D.E. Gandolfo (2002)
Insect herbivores associated with species of Solanum (Solanaceae) in northeastern Argentina and southeastern Paraguay, with reference to biological control of weeds in South Africa and the United States of America
Florida Entomologist 85 (1), 254-260
Abstract: Solanum mauritianum Scopoli and Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck are major exotic weeds in South Africa, while Solanum viarum Dunal is similarly problematic in the United States of America. All three species are native to northeastern Argentina and southeastern Paraguay, where they were surveyed for natural enemies in February 1998. Insect agents for Solanum weeds have a tendency to extend their host ranges to include non-target Solanum species, in particular cultivated eggplant (S. melongena L.), during laboratory trials, making it difficult to promote their release. To facilitate the interpretation of such results, other native and cultivated Solanum species that grew in close proximity to the target species were also surveyed to give an indication of the insects' field host ranges. During the survey period, 19 insect herbivore species were recorded on S. mauritianum, while 8 species were recorded on each of S. sisymbriifolium and S. viarum. Based on the insects' occurrence, abundance and damage to their target weeds, and their absence on other non-target Solanum species, several natural enemies that warrant further investigation were identified. These include 5 species associated with S. mauritianum and 2 species associated with each of S. sisymbriifolium and S. viarum. With rare exceptions, these insects were normally associated with a single host species and none attacked cultivated eggplant.

Solanum mauritianum Scopoli y Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck son importantes malezas exóticas en Sudáfrica, mientras que Solanum viarum Dunal tiene el mismo status en Estados Unidos de América. Las tres especies son nativas del noreste de Argentina y sudeste del Paraguay, donde una búsqueda de enemigos naturales fue llevada a cabo en febrero de 1998. En ensayos de laboratorio, los insectos estudiados para control biológico de Solanum tienen una tendencia a extender su rango de hospedadores a otras especies del género, en particular S.melongena L. (berenjena), lo que dificulta obtener permisos de liberación. Por ello, en el estudio se incluyeron berenjena y otras especies nativas de Solanum, lo cual proveyó una indicación del rango real de plantas hospederas. Durante el estudio, 19 especies de insectos herbívoros fueron obtenidos en S.mauritianum, 8 especies en S.sisymbriifolium y 8 en S.viarum. Basado en la presencia, abundancia y daño infligido a las malezas en estudio y su ausencia en otras especies de Solanum, se identificaron nueve especies que ameritan futuros estudios. En la mayoría de los casos estas especies fueron halladas sobre una única planta hospedadora y en ningún caso se las encontró en berenjena.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Full text of article
Database assignments for author(s): Terry Olckers, Julio C. Medal

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
non-target effects/fate in environm.
surveys/distribution/isolation


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Solanum sisymbriifolium (weed) South Africa
Solanum sisymbriifolium (weed) Argentina
Solanum sisymbriifolium (weed) Paraguay
Solanum viarum (weed) Argentina
Solanum viarum (weed) Paraguay
Solanum mauritianum (weed) South Africa
Solanum mauritianum (weed) Argentina
Solanum mauritianum (weed) Paraguay