European Journal of Entomology (2001) 98, 41-45

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K. Tschudi-Rein and S. Dorn (2001)
Reproduction and immature development of Hyssopus pallidus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the codling moth
European Journal of Entomology 98 (1), 41-45
Abstract: Hyssopus pallidus (Askew) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of late larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). In the present work reproduction and the development and morphology of the immature stages were studied. Five larval instars were differentiated by the shape and size of the mandibles. The larvae are hymenopteriform with a weakly sclerotized head and 13 segments. The first instar has four pairs of spiracles, while the other four instars have nine pairs. Under laboratory conditions of 22-24°C and 60-80% RH the egg stage lasted 1.5 days, the larval instars 6.3 days, and the pupal stage 7.9 days in females and 7.2 days in males. The duration of each of the five larval instars (L1-L5) is approximately 1, 0.5, 0.75, 0.75 and 3.5 days, respectively. Male and female development time does not differ significantly in the egg and larval stages, but differences are highly significant in the pupal stage. Male and female pupae can be differentiated by their sexual rudiments. Copulation takes place immediately upon emergence of the females between siblings, adult males appearing before the females. Females in culture with access to an energy source can survive for more than 60 days. They are synovigenic: they emerge with no mature eggs in their ovaries and take the first two days after emergence to mature the full set of around 24-30 eggs. They continue paralyzing hosts, ovipositing and maturing eggs for as long as they live. After an oviposition a female needs two to three days to mature a new full set of eggs. Age and feeding influence egg load. Oösorption is significant in starved females, but also occurs in older fed females with no host contact.
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Full text of article
Database assignments for author(s): Silvia Dorn

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
general biology - morphology - evolution

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Cydia pomonella
Hyssopus pallidus (parasitoid) Cydia pomonella France