Environmental Entomology (2019) 48, 419-425
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Herbivorous caterpillars can utilize three mechanisms to alter green leaf volatile emission
Environmental Entomology 48 (2), 419-425
Abstract: Green plants emit green leaf volatiles (GLVs) as a general damage response. These compounds act as signals for the emitter plant, neighboring plants, and even for insects in the ecosystem. However, when oral secretions from certain caterpillars are applied to wounded leaves, GLV emissions are significantly decreased or modified. We examined four caterpillar species representing two lepidopteran families for their capacity to decrease GLV emissions from Zea mays leaf tissue. We also investigated the source of the GLV modifying components in the alimentary tract of the various caterpillars. In Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Manduca sexta (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), we found three distinct mechanisms to modify GLV emission: a heat-stable compound in the gut, a heat-labile enzyme in salivary gland homogenate (previously described in Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and an isomerase in the salivary gland homogenate, which catalyzes the conversion of (Z)-3-hexenal to (E)-2-hexenal (previously described in M. sexta). These mechanisms employed by caterpillars to suppress or modify GLV emission suggest a counteraction against the induced indirect volatile defenses of a plant and provides further insights into the ecological functions of GLVs.
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Database assignments for author(s): James H. Tumlinson
Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
resistance/tolerance/defence of host
environment - cropping system/rotation
Pest and/or beneficial records:
|Spodoptera exigua||Maize/corn (Zea mays)|
|Trichoplusia ni||Maize/corn (Zea mays)|
|Spodoptera frugiperda||Maize/corn (Zea mays)|
|Manduca sexta||Maize/corn (Zea mays)|