Canadian Journal of Forest Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestière (2012) 42, 1661-1668

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Juha Kaitera and Ritva Hiltunen (2012)
New alternate hosts for the rusts Cronartium ribicola and Cronartium flaccidum in Finland
Canadian Journal of Forest Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestière 42 (9), 1661-1668
Abstract: We explored the potential of the North European flora and some garden plants growing naturally outside Europe to support a reservoir of pine stem rusts. Live plants and detached leaves of 35 species in 16 families (Solanaceae, Verbenaceae, Grossulariaceae, Paeoniaceae, Balsaminaceae, Gentianaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Loasaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Acanthaceae, Myricaceae, Phrymaceae, Plantaginaceae, Orobanchaceae, Apocynaceae, and Fagaceae) were inoculated in the greenhouse and (or) laboratory with aeciospores of Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. and Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. and Schwein) G. Winter in 2010. Cronartium flaccidum produced uredinia and (or) telia in 14 species in nine families, 11 of which represent new alternate hosts in Finland and nine also elsewhere (excluding Nemesia versicolor and Tropaeolum majus L.): Euphrasia stricta D. Wof. ex J.F. Lehm., N. versicolor E. Mey. ex Benth., Nemesia strumosa Benth., Verbena × hybrida Voss., Verbena officinalis L., Veronica longifolia L., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, T. majus, Loasa triphylla Juss., Asclepias incarnata L., and Bartsia alpina L. Cronartium ribicola formed fruitbodies in nine species and cultivars in five families, five of which are new alternate hosts for this species in Finland and also elsewhere: Mentzelia lindleyi Torr. and A. Gray, A. incarnata, B. alpina, L. triphylla, and T. majus. Both species of Cronartium infected four alternate hosts, each in its own family. The alternate host range of each Cronartium was wider than expected and wider than that previously described. In local natural forests, Euphrasia, Veronica, and Bartsia (in northern Finland) are potential hosts that are common and may be able to spread these rusts. The recently established ornamental I. glandulifera could provide the means to spread C. flaccidum to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in southern Finland, and species of Mentzelia may be important for the spread of C. ribicola.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Juha Kaitera

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
general biology - morphology - evolution
environment - cropping system/rotation


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Cronartium ribicola Pine (Pinus) Finland
Cronartium flaccidum Pine (Pinus) Finland