Biological Invasions (2017) 19, 2777-2787

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Ivan Rwomushana, Fathiya M. Khamis, Tim G. Grout, Samira A. Mohamed, Mamoudou Sétamou, Christian Borgemeister, Hellen M. Heya, Chrysantus M. Tanga, Peterson W. Nderitu, Zuberi S. Seguni, Christopher L. Materu and Sunday Ekesi (2017)
Detection of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Kenya and potential implication for the spread of Huanglongbing disease in East Africa
Biological Invasions 19 (10), 2777-2787
Abstract: The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is a damaging pest of citrus globally and has recently been detected in Tanzania. Although direct damage by the pest is seldom of economic importance, the insect is more notorious for its ability to vector the fastidious phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the putative causal bacterium of Huanglongbing or Asian citrus greening disease. For many years, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was known to be the main vector of the African citrus greening disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (CLaf), but the recent arrival of D. citri on the continent adds to the dynamics of infection and spread of both diseases on mainland Africa. Following the recent report of the presence of D. citri in Tanzania, an additional delimiting survey was carried out in the region, focusing on Kenya, mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar to detect the presence and ascertain the extent of spread of D. citri. We employed molecular tools based on the use of DNA barcoding to confirm the identity of D. citri. In addition to D. citri, the occurrence of T. erytreae in the same sampling locations is also reported. Adults and nymphs of either D. citri or T. erytreae were collected from citrus at many of the surveyed sites ranging from 19 to 668 m above sea level (masl) in Tanzania, 20–1666 masl in Kenya, and 42–48 masl in Zanzibar. Diaphorina citri was sympatric with T. erytreae at the mid to higher elevations of 1375–1666 masl and no T. erytreae or its open-gall symptoms were detected below 523 masl. Sequences obtained were queried via BLAST and all linked to D. citri of different accession numbers already available on GenBank. This is the first report of the presence of D. citri in Kenya and Zanzibar. The potential implication of the detection and spread of the two pathogens, CLaf and CLas to the citrus industry in East Africa and movement of suitable host plants is discussed.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Ivan Rwomushana, Sunday Ekesi, Mamoudou Sétamou, Christian Borgemeister, Tim G. Grout

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
surveys/sampling/distribution


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Trioza erytreae Citrus (genus) Kenya
Trioza erytreae Citrus (genus) Tanzania
Diaphorina citri Citrus (genus) Kenya
Diaphorina citri Citrus (genus) Tanzania