Biocontrol Science and Technology (2015) 25, 56-71

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Rodrigo M. Saraiva, Kirk J. Czymmek, Álefe V. Borges, Nilmara P. Caires and Luiz A. Maffia (2015)
Confocal microscopy study to understand Clonostachys rosea and Botrytis cinerea interactions in tomato plants
Biocontrol Science and Technology 25 (1), 56-71
Abstract: Clonostachys rosea, a biological control agent for plant diseases, is found in a variety of habitats and colonises and survives in different tissues. This antagonist is effective at controlling grey mould, which is caused by Botrytis cinerea, in different plant species. Despite the existing knowledge regarding the efficiency of C. rosea at biologically controlling grey mould, there are few studies concerning this interaction at the histological level. Therefore, we studied the antagonist–pathogen interactions using confocal microscopy. C. rosea survived in tomato tissues for at least 30 days between 18–30ºC. The antagonist colonised the wounded tomato stems faster and more efficiently than the pathogen. The colonisation of the leaf tissues by C. rosea was slow, and the spore concentration was poor in this experiment. Combined with the pathogen's direct penetration into the leaves, this slow colonisation could cause the biological control to fail. C. rosea also preyed parasitically upon the pathogen's hyphae, penetrated the tomato's leaf tissue through the stomata and colonised the stem's intercellular spaces. Root colonisation was abundant, with a dense hyphae network forming between epidermal cell junctions. This observation provided evidence that the fungus can penetrate via the roots. This paper will help to better define an application strategy for C. rosea in tomato propagation, with the goal of biological control or growth promotion, because to understand how the antagonist survives and interacts in its habitat will define how and when to apply it.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Luiz A. Maffia

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
general biology - morphology - evolution


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Botrytis cinerea Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
Clonostachys rosea (antagonist) Botrytis cinerea Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)