Biocontrol Science and Technology (2008) 18, 829-839

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S.P. Arthurs, L.A. Lacey and R.W. Behle (2008)
Evaluation of lignins and particle films as solar protectants for the granulovirus of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella
Biocontrol Science and Technology 18 (8), 829-839
Abstract: The identification of effective solar protectants for field application of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), granulovirus (CpGV) is of interest to improve its efficacy and commercial viability as a biological pesticide. We evaluated several materials as potential adjuvants to protect CpGV from ultraviolet degradation. In laboratory tests with a solar simulator (9.36 x 106 J/m2), the addition of kaolin clay (Surround® WP at 3 and 6%, w/v), a paraffin wax-based emulsion (SPLAT™ at 5%, v/v), and a bark extract trans-cinnamaldehyde combined with a film agent (both at 1%, v/v) did not significantly reduce larval entries or increase larval mortality in irradiated apples that were treated with a commercial CpGV product (Cyd-X). In semi-field tests in an apple orchard, a spray-dried lignin formulation containing CpGV (6.57 x 1012 OBs/ha) and a lignin-based adjuvant used with Cyd-X (both applied at 4.7-5.6 kg lignin/ha) significantly improved residual activity of CpGV compared with Cyd-X alone applied at the same rate. However, the benefits were short lived and could not be detected after 7 days. In orchard tests, we evaluated two additional refined lignin-products (Lignosulfonate and Vanisperse™ CB at 5.61 kg/ha) and two particle film materials (kaolin clay, 'Cocoon™', and calcium with boron 'Eclipse™') as adjuvants for UV protection of Cyd-X (6.57 x 1012 OBs/ha) in tests against a dense codling moth infestation. Although all virus treatments were highly effective (causing > 90% larval mortality), no significant effects of the adjuvant treatments could be detected. In these latter tests, the use of a silicone based wetting agent at 0.025% (v/v) may have been beneficial at increasing mortality among older larvae inside the fruit.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Steven Arthurs, Lawrence A. Lacey, Robert W. Behle

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
formulation/storage of bioagents
application technology

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Cydia pomonella granulovirus (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)