Biocontrol Science and Technology (2000) 10, 627-640

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J. Ballard, D.J. Ellis and C.C. Payne (2000)
The role of formulation additives in increasing the potency of Cydia pomonella granulovirus for codling moth larvae, in laboratory and field experiments
Biocontrol Science and Technology 10 (5), 627-640
Abstract: Studies were undertaken to improve the biological efficacy of the granulovirus (CpGV) of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, by evaluating the performance of some formulation additives that might improve virus persistence and/or virus uptake by first instar larvae. Laboratory studies, using a leaf disc bioassay, demonstrated that 15% cane molasses incorporated within a formulation of purified CpGV dramatically reduced the median lethal exposure time (LET50) to CpGV for neonate larvae at a CpGV dosage rate of 107 occlusion bodies (OBs) ml-1. Screening of a range of other compounds showed that sucrose, fructose and sorbitol (at 10% concentrations) and extracts of apple flesh and skin also gave significant reductions in the LET50 of CpGV formulations containing these ingredients. Pectin, malic acid and alpha-farnesene did not significantly reduce the LET50. In a field trial, molasses included at 15% (v/v) in a CpGV formulation, containing a dosage rate of 1012 OBs ha-1, gave as good control of codling moth damage as virus formulations containing the 'sticker' 0.2% skimmed milk at higher dosage rates of 1013 and 1014 OBs ha-1. Studies of CpGV persistence on foliage revealed no significant improvement of virus persistence on apple foliage using 10% or 15% molasses formulations. A second field trial demonstrated that 10% molasses, 10% sorbitol or 0.08% alpha-farnesene significantly reduced codling moth deep damage to fruit when these ingredients were added to formulations of pure CpGV. Substantial sooty-mould growth (Cladosporium spp.) was observed on apple foliage treated with formulations containing molasses, indicating that this formulation additive has secondary consequences that would need to be taken into account if molasses was to be used in commercial CpGV formulations. Nonetheless, these studies clearly demonstrate that major biological improvements in CpGV performance can be achieved by the incorporation of formulation additives, including molasses and several other compounds, that probably function as attractants and/or feeding stimulants for codling moth larvae.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website


Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
formulation/storage of bioagents


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Cydia pomonella
Cydia pomonella granulovirus (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella