BioControl (2006) 51, 1-30

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Josep-Anton Jacas, Alberto Urbaneja and Elisa Viñuela (2006)
History and future of introduction of exotic arthropod biological control agents in Spain: A dilemma?
BioControl 51 (1), 1-30
Abstract: The first documented introduction of an exotic invertebrate biological control agent (IBCA) in Spain occurred in 1908. Sixty-four additional species have been introduced since then. Information, both previously recorded and original data, on the species introduced for pest control is summarized. Most of the introduced IBCAs focused on citrus pests and homopterans clearly predominate among target phytophagous species. Success has been more frequent for IBCAs used in seasonal inoculative strategies (50.0% of cases) than in classical biological control programs (17.1% of cases). Concerns about potential non-target effects of such species are increasing, but post-release evaluation has often been insufficient to draw any conclusions about them. Most of the beneficial species introduced in Spain were parasitoids (n = 53), and the remaining species were predators (n = 12). Only four parasitoids are considered specialized monophagous natural enemies. The mean number of host species parasitized by parasitoids is 15.2, whereas the mean number of prey species attacked by predators is 21.2. Therefore, polyphagy appears to be quite common among the IBCAs that have been introduced in Spain. The rationale guiding many of these introductions in the past would not be acceptable nowadays. Since classical biological control is such a valuable strategy for pest control, straightforward protocols to evaluate exotic candidate species are urgently needed.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Josep-Anton Jacas Miret, Alberto Urbaneja, Elisa Viñuela

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
classical biocontrol/new introduction
surveys/distribution/isolation


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Parabemisia myricae Spain (continental)
Cydia pomonella Spain (continental)
Ostrinia nubilalis Spain (continental)
Aphis gossypii Spain (continental)
Myzus persicae Spain (continental)
Tetranychus urticae Spain (continental)
Lymantria dispar Spain (continental)
Bemisia tabaci Spain (continental)
Planococcus citri Spain (continental)
Frankliniella occidentalis Spain (continental)
Phyllocnistis citrella Spain (continental)
Aonidiella aurantii Spain (continental)
Ceratitis capitata Spain (continental)
Trialeurodes vaporariorum Spain (continental)
Bactrocera oleae Spain (continental)
Saissetia oleae Spain (continental)
Diaspidiotus perniciosus Spain (continental)
Aleurothrixus floccosus Spain (continental)
Aphis aurantii Spain (continental)
Dialeurodes citri Spain (continental)
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Spain (continental)
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Spain (continental)
Eriosoma lanigerum Spain (continental)
Icerya purchasi Spain (continental)
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Spain (continental)
Phoracantha semipunctata Spain (continental)
Gonipterus scutellatus Spain (continental)
Encarsia formosa (parasitoid) Bemisia tabaci Spain (continental)
Encarsia formosa (parasitoid) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Spain (continental)
Harmonia axyridis (predator) Spain (continental)
Trichogramma pretiosum (parasitoid) Ostrinia nubilalis Spain (continental)
Trichogramma minutum (parasitoid) Cydia pomonella Spain (continental)
Lysiphlebus testaceipes (parasitoid) Aphis aurantii Spain (continental)
Leptomastix dactylopii (parasitoid) Planococcus citri Spain (continental)
Galendromus occidentalis (predator) Tetranychus urticae Spain (continental)
Aphidius colemani (parasitoid) Aphis gossypii Spain (continental)
Aphidius colemani (parasitoid) Myzus persicae Spain (continental)
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (predator) Planococcus citri Spain (continental)
Delphastus catalinae (predator) Spain (continental)
Cotesia marginiventris (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Fopius arisanus (parasitoid) Ceratitis capitata Spain (continental)
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (parasitoid) Ceratitis capitata Spain (continental)
Psyttalia incisi (parasitoid) Ceratitis capitata Spain (continental)
Encarsia pergandiella (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Aphytis lingnanensis (parasitoid) Aonidiella aurantii Spain (continental)
Aphytis lingnanensis (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Spain (continental)
Diachasmimorpha tryoni (parasitoid) Ceratitis capitata Spain (continental)
Eretmocerus eremicus (parasitoid) Bemisia tabaci Spain (continental)
Eretmocerus eremicus (parasitoid) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Spain (continental)
Orius insidiosus (predator) Frankliniella occidentalis Spain (continental)
Hippodamia convergens (predator) Spain (continental)
Podisus maculiventris (predator) Spain (continental)
Aphytis melinus (parasitoid) Aonidiella aurantii Spain (continental)
Tetrastichus giffardianus (parasitoid) Ceratitis capitata Spain (continental)
Comperiella bifasciata (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Ageniaspis citricola (parasitoid) Phyllocnistis citrella Spain (continental)
Cirrospilus ingenuus (parasitoid) Phyllocnistis citrella Spain (continental)
Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (parasitoid) Phyllocnistis citrella Spain (continental)
Cales noacki (parasitoid) Aleurothrixus floccosus Spain (continental)
Anagyrus fusciventris (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Encyrtus infelix (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Metaphycus helvolus (parasitoid) Saissetia oleae Spain (continental)
Rhyzobius lophanthae (predator) Spain (continental)
Ooencyrtus kuvanae (parasitoid) Lymantria dispar Spain (continental)
Coccidoxenoides perminutus (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Microterys nietneri (parasitoid) Saissetia oleae Spain (continental)
Rodolia cardinalis (predator) Icerya purchasi Spain (continental)
Aphelinus mali (parasitoid) Eriosoma lanigerum Spain (continental)
Encarsia berlesei (parasitoid) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Spain (continental)
Comperiella lemniscata (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Eretmocerus debachi (parasitoid) Parabemisia myricae Spain (continental)
Encarsia perniciosi (parasitoid) Diaspidiotus perniciosus Spain (continental)
Encarsia perniciosi (parasitoid) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Spain (continental)
Aphytis holoxanthus (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Encarsia strenua (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Ascogaster quadridentatus (parasitoid) Cydia pomonella Spain (continental)
Encarsia lahorensis (parasitoid) Dialeurodes citri Spain (continental)
Anaphes nitens (parasitoid) Gonipterus scutellatus Spain (continental)
Neoseiulus idaeus (predator) Spain (continental)
Avetianella longoi (parasitoid) Phoracantha semipunctata Spain (continental)
Galeopsomyia fausta (parasitoid) Phyllocnistis citrella Spain (continental)
Psyttalia concolor (parasitoid) Bactrocera oleae Spain (continental)
Cryptochetum iceryae (parasitoid) Icerya purchasi Spain (continental)
Aphytis lepidosaphes (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Encarsia herndoni (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Semielacher petiolatus (parasitoid) Phyllocnistis citrella Spain (continental)
Franklinothrips megalops (predator) Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Spain (continental)
Metaphycus lounsburyi (parasitoid) Saissetia oleae Spain (continental)
Tetracnemoidea peregrina (parasitoid) Spain (continental)
Metaphycus swirskii (parasitoid) Saissetia oleae Spain (continental)
Gyranusoidea litura (parasitoid) Planococcus citri Spain (continental)
Amitus spiniferus (parasitoid) Aleurothrixus floccosus Spain (continental)