Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2017) 11, 463-473

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Casey R. Hall, Anthony R. Carroll and Roger L. Kitching (2017)
A meta-analysis of the effects of galling insects on host plant secondary metabolites
Arthropod-Plant Interactions 11 (4), 463-473
Abstract: The idea that galling insects actively manipulate host plant chemistry has been previously documented but has not been quantified across a range of galler and host plant taxa. We present the first quantitative review of the relationship between insect galling and levels of secondary metabolites in host plants. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined this relationship across 40 galler and host plant species combinations. We found that galling insects are associated with significantly higher levels of tannins and phenolics; however, no difference was found for volatiles. Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera were associated with higher levels of secondary metabolites; however, only Hymenoptera was significant. The climatic zone of the study area did not explain significant differences in gall-induced secondary metabolites. Overall the results show that the ability of galling insects to manipulate host plant secondary chemistry is widespread across insect and plant taxa. The evolutionary success of galling insects may be in part due to this unique ability.
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