Annual Review of Phytopathology (2021) 59, 423-445

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Pradeep Kachroo, Tessa M. Burch-Smith and Murray Grant (2021)
An emerging role for chloroplasts in disease and defense
Annual Review of Phytopathology 59, 423-445
Abstract: Chloroplasts are key players in plant immune signaling, contributing to not only de novo synthesis of defensive phytohormones but also the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following activation of pattern recognition receptors or resistance (R) proteins. The local hypersensitive response (HR) elicited by R proteins is underpinned by chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species. HR-induced lipid peroxidation generates important chloroplast-derived signaling lipids essential to the establishment of systemic immunity. As a consequence of this pivotal role in immunity, pathogens deploy effector complements that directly or indirectly target chloroplasts to attenuate chloroplast immunity (CI). Our review summarizes the current knowledge of CI signaling and highlights common pathogen chloroplast targets and virulence strategies. We address emerging insights into chloroplast retrograde signaling in immune responses and gaps in our knowledge, including the importance of understanding chloroplast heterogeneity and chloroplast involvement in intraorganellular interactions in host immunity.
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general biology - morphology - evolution
resistance/tolerance/defence of host

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