Annual Review of Entomology (2019) 64, 379-397

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Lorenza Beati and Hans Klompen (2019)
Phylogeography of ticks (Acari: Ixodida)
Annual Review of Entomology 64, 379-397
Abstract: Improved understanding of tick phylogeny has allowed testing of some biogeographical patterns. On the basis of both literature data and a meta-analysis of available sequence data, there is strong support for a Gondwanan origin of Ixodidae, and probably Ixodida. A particularly strong pattern is observed for the genus Amblyomma, which appears to have originated in Antarctica/southern South America, with subsequent dispersal to Australia. The endemic Australian lineages of Ixodidae (no other continent has such a pattern) appear to result from separate dispersal events, probably from Antarctica. Minimum ages for a number of divergences are determined as part of an updated temporal framework for tick evolution. Alternative hypotheses for tick evolution, such as a very old Pangean group, a Northern hemisphere origin, or an Australian origin, fit less well with observed phylogeographic patterns.
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Database assignments for author(s): Lorenza Beati

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Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.
Amblyomma americanum