Annual Review of Entomology (2015) 60, 195-211

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Apostolos Kapranas and Alejandro Tena (2015)
Encyrtid parasitoids of soft scale insects: Biology, behavior, and their use in biological control
Annual Review of Entomology 60, 195-211
Abstract: Parasitoids of the hymenopterous family Encyrtidae are one of the most important groups of natural enemies of soft scale insects and have been used extensively in biological control. We summarize existing knowledge of the biology, ecology, and behavior of these parasitoids and how it relates to biological control. Soft scale stage/size and phenology are important determinants of host range and host utilization, which are key aspects in understanding how control by these parasitoids is exerted. Furthermore, the nutritional ecology of encyrtids and their physiological interactions with their hosts affect soft scale insect population dynamics. Lastly, the interactions among encyrtids, heteronomous parasitoids, and ants shape parasitoid species complexes and consequently have a direct impact on the biological control of soft scale insects.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
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Database assignments for author(s): Apostolos Kapranas, Alejandro Tena

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.