Annual Review of Entomology (2009) 54, 147-163

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Aaron J. Gassmann, Yves Carrière and Bruce E. Tabashnik (2009)
Fitness costs of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis
Annual Review of Entomology 54, 147-163
Abstract: Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the continued effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in sprays and transgenic crops. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur when, in the absence of Bt toxins, fitness is lower for resistant insects than for susceptible insects. Modeling results show that fitness costs can delay resistance by selecting against Bt-resistant genotypes in refuges where insects are not exposed to Bt toxins. In 77 studies including 18 species, fitness costs were detected in 62% of experiments testing for declines in resistance and in 34% of fitness component comparisons. Mean fitness costs were 15.5% for survival, 7.4% for development time, and 2.5% for mass. Although most fitness costs were recessive, nonrecessive costs can select more strongly against resistance. Because fitness costs vary with ecological conditions, refuges designed to increase the dominance or magnitude of fitness costs could be especially useful for delaying pest resistance.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Aaron J. Gassmann, Yves Carriere, Bruce E. Tabashnik

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
resistance/tolerance/defence of host


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Bacillus thuringiensis (entomopathogen)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen)