Annual Review of Entomology (2008) 53, 121-144

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Lawrence A. Lacey and David I. Shapiro-Ilan (2008)
Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: Potential for incorporation into IPM
Annual Review of Entomology 53, 121-144
Abstract: Because of their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) appear to be ready-made components of integrated pest management (IPM) systems that do not pose a threat to applicators or the environment and allow other natural enemies to function. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), have been demonstrated in apple, pear, stone fruits, citrus, and several nut crops. B. thuringiensis is the most used MCA for control of lepidopteran orchard pests. Significant use of EPNs in citrus for control of root weevils is also reported. The granulovirus of codling moth is used increasingly in apple and pear by organic growers, with interest also shown by conventional growers. Although some success has been achieved, in most orchard systems MCAs account for a relatively small proportion of the pest control tactics employed, and in some systems they are not used at all. Research toward improving MCA efficacy and economic competitiveness is required to enhance the role of MCAs in IPM.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Lawrence A. Lacey, David I. Shapiro-Ilan

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Grapholita molesta
Amyelois transitella Almond (Prunus dulcis)
Amyelois transitella Pistachio nut and relatives (Pistacia)
Phyllocoptruta oleivora Citrus (genus)
Adoxophyes orana
Diaprepes abbreviatus Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Curculio caryae Pecan/hickory (Carya)
Rhagoletis indifferens Cherry (Prunus avium - Prunus cerasus) U.S.A. (NW)
Platynota idaeusalis
Pantomorus cervinus Citrus (genus)
Conotrachelus nenuphar U.S.A. (SE)
Synanthedon exitiosa
Beauveria bassiana (entomopathogen) Phyllocoptruta oleivora Citrus (genus)
Beauveria bassiana (entomopathogen) Curculio caryae Pecan/hickory (Carya)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Amyelois transitella Almond (Prunus dulcis)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Diaprepes abbreviatus Citrus (genus)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Curculio caryae Pecan/hickory (Carya)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Rhagoletis indifferens Cherry (Prunus avium - Prunus cerasus) U.S.A. (NW)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Synanthedon exitiosa
Steinernema feltiae/Xenorhabdus bovienii (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Steinernema feltiae/Xenorhabdus bovienii (entomopathogen) Rhagoletis indifferens Cherry (Prunus avium - Prunus cerasus) U.S.A. (NW)
Hirsutella thompsonii (entomopathogen) Phyllocoptruta oleivora Citrus (genus)
Heterorhabditis indica/Photorhabdus (entomopathogen) Diaprepes abbreviatus Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Cydia pomonella granulovirus (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Steinernema riobrave/Xenorhabdus cabanillasii (entomopathogen) Diaprepes abbreviatus Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Steinernema riobrave/Xenorhabdus cabanillasii (entomopathogen) Conotrachelus nenuphar
Adoxophyes orana granulovirus (entomopathogen) Adoxophyes orana
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora/Photorhabdus (entomopathogen) Synanthedon exitiosa
Steinernema diaprepesi (entomopathogen) Diaprepes abbreviatus