Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil (1998) 27, 313-323

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Guy J. Hallman (1998)
Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments
Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 27 (3), 313-323
Abstract: Irradiation is a viable quarantine disinfestation treatment which has been studied for 40 years although it has received very little commercial use. Two principal obstacles to commercial application, 1) the fact that insects are not killed immediately, and 2) consumer opposition to irradiation, have been allayed to some extent, but the remaining impediment to large-scale commercial use is development of approved protocols by government regulatory agencies in importing countries. The United States Department of Agriculture has taken the first step by allowing for the movement of a number of quarantined fruits from Hawaii to the rest of the country following irradiation treatment. The measures of efficacy of irradiation disinfestation treatments should be prevention of adult emergence, when only eggs and larvae are present or sterility when pupae or adults are present. This can be accomplished with relatively low doses that are tolerated by many fruits for such pest groups as tephritid fruit flies, curculionid weevils, and some Homoptera. Lepidoptera will require moderately higher doses. The most radiation-tolerant stage is usually the most advanced one present. Female insects are more susceptible to radiation-induced sterility than males; some spider mite (Tetranychidae) females are more tolerant than males. Future research should concentrate on confirming quarantine treatment doses for more insects (this has only been done for several tephritids), arriving at doses for some important groups of organisms for which scant research has been done (Mollusca, Coccoidea, Thysanoptera, Eriophyidae), and identifying and quantifying radiation-modifying factors.
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Database assignments for author(s): Guy J. Hallman

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
quarantine treatments/regulations/aspects

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Cydia pomonella
Plodia interpunctella
Anthonomus grandis
Sitophilus granarius
Sitophilus zeamais
Rhyzopertha dominica
Tenebrio molitor
Tenebrio obscurus
Trogoderma granarium
Stegobium paniceum
Lasioderma serricorne
Trogoderma glabrum
Trogoderma variabile
Tetranychus urticae
Sitotroga cerealella
Nilaparvata lugens
Cylas formicarius
Pissodes strobi
Panonychus citri
Popillia japonica
Trialeurodes vaporariorum
Cadra cautella
Epilachna varivestis
Corcyra cephalonica
Rhizoglyphus echinopus
Attagenus unicolor
Palorus subdepressus
Circulifer tenellus
Perkinsiella saccharicida
Dysdercus koenigii
Amphimallon majale
Conotrachelus nenuphar
Trogoderma inclusum
Clepsis spectrana
Oligonychus biharensis