American Entomologist (2009) 55, 184-197

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A.M. Agnello, A. Atanassov, J.C. Bergh, D.J. Biddinger, L.J. Gut, M.J. Haas, J.K. Harper, H.W. Hogmire, L.A. Hull, L.F. Kime, G. Krawczyk, P.S. Mcghee, J.P. Nyrop, W.H. Reissig, P.W. Shearer, R.W. Straub, R.T. Villanueva and J.F. Walgenbach (2009)
Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. apple and peach orchards: A 4-year regional project
American Entomologist 55 (3), 184-197
Abstract: Studies were conducted from 2002 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of reduced-risk (RR) tactics for managing key pests in 50 commercial apple orchards (114 ha) in Michigan, North Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia; and 20 peach orchards (190 ha) in Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. At each apple site, a block of up to 5 ha received a seasonal program of selective RR and organophosphate-replacement insecticides, with or without pheromones for mating disruption of key lepidopteran pests of apple (codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and obliquebanded leafroller) and peach (oriental fruit moth, lesser peachtree borer, and peachtree borer). A comparison block at each site with the same varieties and tree training was managed using each grower's standard program of conventional insecticides (STD). Pheromone traps for lepidopteran species were hung in all plots and monitored weekly. Foliar samples were taken during the season to estimate phytophagous and predator mite densities. Red sphere traps baited with fruit volatiles were used to monitor apple maggot adults in apple orchards. Fruits were inspected for insect damage at harvest, and graded according to USDA standards. Partial budget analysis was used to assess the net profitability of RR programs to produce apples and peaches for their intended market in each state. Fruit damage at harvest caused by direct fruit pests was generally low across all blocks and treatments. There were no statistically significant differences in fruit damage or mite populations between the RR blocks, with or without pheromones, and the growers' standards. Insecticide use patterns in the RR plots represented up to 88 and 78% reduction in the amount of active ingredient applied per hectare, and an 85 and 77% decrease in their Environmental Impact Quotient for apples and peaches, respectively. However, RR programs were more expensive and generally less profitable compared with growers' standard programs. Regression analysis estimated that RR apple programs with and without mating disruption were on average anddollar;465 and anddollar;144/ha more expensive, and anddollar;544 and anddollar;159/ha less profitable, respectively, compared with standard programs. RR+MD programs for peaches cost an average anddollar;314/ha more and returned about anddollar;284/ha less than STD peach programs.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Arthur M. Agnello, J. Chris Bergh, James F. Walgenbach, Peter W. Shearer, Jan P. Nyrop, Henry W. Hogmire

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
control - general


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (NE)
Grapholita molesta Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (SE)
Grapholita molesta Peach/nectarine (Prunus persica) U.S.A. (NE)
Choristoneura rosaceana Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (NE)
Rhagoletis pomonella
Platynota idaeusalis Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (SE)
Conotrachelus nenuphar Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (NE)
Synanthedon exitiosa Peach/nectarine (Prunus persica) U.S.A. (NE)
Synanthedon pictipes Peach/nectarine (Prunus persica) U.S.A. (NE)