Journal of Biopesticides (2010) 3, 382-385

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H. Kutinkova (2010)
Mating disruption for control of codling moth in apple orchards of Bulgaria
Journal of Biopesticides 3 (1 Special Issue), 382-385
Abstract: Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., is the key pest of pome fruits in Bulgaria. It causes severe damage on apple, pear and quince. Considerable infestation has been noted on walnut as well. Due to regulatory restrictions in use of conventional insecticides after including Bulgaria into the EU and due to the developing resistance of CM to most commonly used organophosphates and pyrethroids, suitable alternative means of control of this pest have been needed. During the three-year period (2006-2008), trials have been carried out in apple orchards in different regions of Bulgaria using the methodology, originally called as 'disorientation of males' and recently as 'mating disruption' (MD). For this purpose different kinds of dispensers were used - Isomate C plus, Ecodian CP and CheckMate® CM XL1000. The careful selection of orchards and adoption of a pheromone-based IPM approach can minimise the risks and maximize efficacy of the CMMD (codling moth mating disruption). CMMD works best in orchards where the physical characteristics and environmental conditions ensure a uniform distribution of synthetic pheromone dispersed. The pheromone dispensers should be deployed within 50 cm of the canopy top, prior to the expected first flights of the pest. Borders of pheromone treated orchards are susceptible to high levels of CM infestation; hence the growers should increase the density of dispensers at these sites. Monitoring of CM adult activity in the orchards treated with CMMD is difficult. Capture of moths in pheromone traps baited with 1 mg of codlemone is an unreliable indicator of efficacy. The sensitivity of pheromone traps can be improved by using traps baited with 20 mg lures and locating them in the uppermost parts of the canopy. Positive results were obtained in all orchards, where CMMD was used. The percentage of damaged fruits in trial plots was below economical threshold. Hibernating population of CM was reduced, as indicated by counts of diapausing larvae in corrugated paper band traps. The consequent adoption of CMMD will depend on how well this method meets the grower expectations concerning risk, efficacy and cost.
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Database assignments for author(s): Hristina Kutinkova

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
control - general

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus) Bulgaria