Solanum elaeagnifolium (weed)
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Solanum elaeagnifolium (weed) Cavanilles - (satansbos)
The species is native in North America and an important, introduced weed in low-rainfall agricultural areas of South Africa, Europe, Asia and Australia. It can form dense stands in crops like olive or grapevine and can cause yield losses of more than 50%, e.g. in cereals. Many other types of crops are affected and it can also invade grasslands where it is toxic to livestock. However, typically livestock will not consume it readily.
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For a review of the weed in the Mediterranean region see Uludag et al., 2016.