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Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) - (South American leafminer or pea leafminer)
This leafminer fly has been originally described from South America and is apparently native there. It has spread to many other parts of the world and is now established in Central and North America, Europe, Africa, the Near East, on Pacific islands and more recently in Asia. Apart from Central America which was invaded in the 1980s, most introductions into new regions were reported in the 1990s. The insect is a highly polyphagous and attacks various vegetables, ornamentals, potatoes and rape. New introductions have often resulted in serious damage which, however, has often subsided after some years.
The female punctures the leaves for feeding and less often for depositing an egg. Depending on the host plant, only every 5th to 100th puncture contains an egg. There are 3 larval stages and the mature larvae leave the leaf and form a puparium which may remain on the leaf surface or drop to the ground. The ideal temperature for the development appears to be around 23-25°C with pupae going into aestivation at higher temperatures or hibernation at low temperatures. There may be more than 10 generations per year under suitable conditions.
The adults are typically less than 3 mm long and black with some parts light yellowish. The mines run often fairly straight along the midrib. The closely related species L. langei occurs in North America and both species cannot be separated externally.
For a review see Weintraub et al. (2017).