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Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome - (coffee rust)
The disease is widespread and economically one of the most important coffee diseases. The fungus is belived to be native to Africa, but has spread to Asia and is reported from South and Central America since 1903. Coffee is the only known host of the fungus.
In South America, epidemics start early in the year during the rainy seasons and peak around mid of the year. Yield losses of 50% and more have been estimated. Fungicides and the use of resistant cultivars are the main control methods. Resistance breeding has to take into account the large number of different races of the fungus which react differently to the various coffee cultivars.
|• English:||coffee rust
coffee orange rust
|• Español:||roya del cafeto|
|• Français:||rouille du caféier|
|• Português:||ferrugem do cafeeiro
The urediniospores of the fungus disperse through wind or rain and infect mainly the leaves. First, small pale yellow leaf spots develop which enlarge and form orange uredinia on the undersides of the leaves.
The urediniospores are kidney-shaped, about 26-40 µm long and are covered with small spines. Teliospores may also be produced in the uredinia under cool and dry conditions. These are yellowish, smooth, almost spherical and form 4 basidiospores each.
For details see the respective page in Wikipedia.