Biocontrol Science and Technology (2013) 23, 507-520

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B. Beck, E. Brusselman, D. Nuyttens, M. Moens, S. Pollet, F. Temmerman and P. Spanoghe (2013)
Improving foliar applications of entomopathogenic nematodes by selecting adjuvants and spray nozzles
Biocontrol Science and Technology 23 (5), 507-520
Abstract: This study explores the influence of a selection of adjuvants and of three different nozzle sizes on the foliar application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Two EPN species were studied: Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema carpocapsae. A viability test of EPNs suspended in different solutions of adjuvants showed that all selected alcohol ethoxylates and an alkyl polysaccharide have an immobilising effect on the selected nematode species. In a sedimentation test, xanthan gum proved to be the only adjuvant in a broad selection, capable of delaying sedimentation of EPNs in suspension. Without xanthan gum, sedimentation of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae was noticeable after 20 and 10 minutes, respectively. When xanthan gum (0.3 g/L) was added to the suspension, no signs of sedimentation were noticed after 20 minutes with both EPN species. An ISO 02 flat fan nozzle can clog when spraying S. carpocapsae. A deposition test determined that an ISO 04 standard flat fan nozzle provides a higher relative deposition on cauliflower leaves and is therefore a better nozzle choice than the bigger ISO 08 standard flat fan nozzle for spraying S. carpocapsae. The addition of a spreading agent improved the deposition of S. carpocapsae. Adding xanthan gum to the EPN-spreading agent mixtures did not further improve deposition.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website


Database assignments for author(s): Bert Beck

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
application technology


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen)
Steinernema feltiae/Xenorhabdus bovienii (entomopathogen)