Applied Entomology and Zoology (2017) 52, 1-7

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François Verheggen, Agnès Verhaeghe, Philippe Giordanengo, Xavier Tassus and Abraham Escobar-Gutiérrez (2017)
Walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae), invades Europe: invasion potential and control strategies
Applied Entomology and Zoology 52 (1), 1-7
Abstract: Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae) is native to North America and invaded Western Europe in the late 1980s, causing important damage to its principal host, walnut (Juglans spp.). In this review, we summarize the important elements of R. completa 's biology, phytosanitary status and methods used in Europe for its control, and then present the main conclusions associated with a completed risk analysis performed in 2014 to evaluate the dispersion and establishment potential of R. completa in Europe. The walnut husk fly was initially identified in Switzerland (1988) and Italy (1991), from where it spread to at least seven additional countries: France, Spain, Germany, Austria, Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary. R. completa has not reached the limits of its potential distribution. The main dissemination pathways within Europe include: (1) natural adult dissemination; (2) adult hitchhiker behaviour; and, to a lesser extent, (3) transportation of larvae in fresh fruits. R. completa host plants are widely distributed in Europe, either as isolated wild trees or in orchards, favouring the probability of fly establishment in currently fly-free areas. In addition, the European territories where Juglans species are present share biogeographic similarities. In orchards where R. completa is present and uncontrolled, 100% of walnut trees can be infested, causing losses in walnut yields of up to 80%. The negative effect is low (<10% yield loss) under phytosanitary control, although additional costs must also be considered to support specific monitoring for R. completa. The information presented here underlines a strong need for better walnut husk fly monitoring across European countries, as well as for increasing efforts to develop biological methods to control this emerging pest.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
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Database assignments for author(s): François J. Verheggen

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
review
new introduction of pest


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Austria
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Croatia
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) France
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Germany
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Hungary
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Italy
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Slovenia
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Spain (continental)
Rhagoletis completa Walnut/butternut (Juglans) Switzerland