Annual Review of Phytopathology (2015) 53, 181-198
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Genomics spurs rapid advances in our understanding of the biology of vascular wilt pathogens in the genus Verticillium
Annual Review of Phytopathology 53, 181-198
Abstract: The availability of genomic sequences of several Verticillium species triggered an explosion of genome-scale investigations of mechanisms fundamental to the Verticillium life cycle and disease process. Comparative genomics studies have revealed evolutionary mechanisms, such as hybridization and interchromosomal rearrangements, that have shaped these genomes. Functional analyses of a diverse group of genes encoding virulence factors indicate that successful host xylem colonization relies on specific Verticillium responses to various stresses, including nutrient deficiency and host defense–derived oxidative stress. Regulatory pathways that control responses to changes in nutrient availability also appear to positively control resting structure development. Conversely, resting structure development seems to be repressed by pathways, such as those involving effector secretion, which promote responses to host defenses. The genomics-enabled functional characterization of responses to the challenges presented by the xylem environment, accompanied by identification of novel virulence factors, has rapidly expanded our understanding of niche adaptation in Verticillium species.
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