Annual Review of Entomology (2015) 60, 273-292

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Tong-Xian Liu, Philip A. Stansly and Dan Gerling (2015)
Whitefly parasitoids: distribution, life history, bionomics, and utilization
Annual Review of Entomology 60, 273-292
Abstract: Whiteflies are small hemipterans numbering more than 1,550 described species, of which about 50 are agricultural pests. Adults are free-living, whereas late first to fourth instars are sessile on the plant. All known species of whitefly parasitoids belong to Hymenoptera; two genera, Encarsia and Eretmocerus, occur worldwide, and others are mostly specific to different continents. All parasitoid eggs are laid in - or in Eretmocerus, under - the host. They develop within whitefly nymphs and emerge from the fourth instar, and in Cales, from either the third or fourth instar. Parasitized hosts are recognized by conspecifics, but super- and hyperparasitism occur. Dispersal flights are influenced by gender and mating status, but no long-range attraction to whitefly presence on leaves is known. Studies on En. formosa have laid the foundation for behavioral studies and biological control in general. We review past and ongoing studies of whitefly parasitoids worldwide, updating available information on species diversity, biology, behavior, tritrophic interactions, and utilization in pest management.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website


Database assignments for author(s): Tong Xian Liu, Philip A. Stansly, Dan Gerling

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
review


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.
Encarsia formosa (parasitoid)
Eretmocerus (genus - parasitoids)